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  • 2020

    Advanced nano-scandate cathode

    Bugaris, D. E., Goggin, C., Baker, K., Balk, J., Busbaher, D. & Tucek, J., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 79-80 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Characterization of material phases on the surface and in the near-surface region of scandate cathodes

    Liu, X., Beck, M. J., Balk, T. J. & Vancil, B. K., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 85-86 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Deposition of tungsten nanoparticles for potential use in dispenser cathodes

    Bai, H., Beck, M. J. & Balk, T. J., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 389-390 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Distribution of desorption products on interior surfaces of scandate cathode test vehicle

    Seif, M. N., Kolnsberg, S., Balk, T. J., Beck, M. J. & Vancil, B. K., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 375-376 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    1 Scopus citations
  • Quantifying work function using kelvin probe systems

    Mantica, A. M. & Balk, T. J., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 391-392 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Temperature effects on desorption behavior and characteristic wulff shapes of scandate cathodes

    Seif, M. N., Balk, T. J. & Beck, M. J., Oct 19 2020, 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020. p. 83-84 2 p. (2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Vacuum Electronics, IVEC 2020).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • 2019

    High-Performance Scandate Cathode

    Bugaris, D. E., Goggin, C., Zhang, X., Balk, J., Busbaher, D. & Tucek, J., Apr 2019, 2019 International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2019. 8745171. (2019 International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2019).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    1 Scopus citations
  • 2018

    Analysis of faceted tungsten grains on the surfaces of scandate cathodes fabricated from L-S and L-L powders

    Liu, X., Zhou, Q., Maxwell, T., Beck, M. J., John Balk, T. & Vancil, B., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 323-324 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    1 Scopus citations
  • Characterization of scandate cathode at different stages of processing

    Liu, X., Maxwell, T., Zhou, Q., Beck, M. J., John Balk, T. & Vancil, B., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 233-234 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Effects of Scandia distribution on surface structure of scandate cathodes

    Zhang, X., John Balk, T., Busbaher, D. & Hunt, A., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 231-232 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Mapping conditions for the formation of high-performance scandate cathodes: New insights into the role of sc

    Zhou, Q., Liu, X., Maxwell, T., Balk, T. J., Beck, M. J. & Vancil, B., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 325-326 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Materials characterization of surface phases in scandate cathodes

    John Balk, T., Liu, X., Zhou, Q., Maxwell, T., Beck, M. J. & Vancil, B., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 329-330 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Scandate cathode work function measurements at elevated temperature

    Maxwell, T., Liu, X., Zhou, Q., Beck, M. J., Balk, T. J. & Vancil, B., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 229-230 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • The dipole model at the atomic scale: Explaining variations in work function due to configurational and compositional changes in Ba/Sc/O adsorbates on W (001), (110), and (112)

    Beck, M. J., Zhou, Q., Liu, X., Maxwell, T., Vancil, B. & Balk, T. J., Jun 20 2018, 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018. p. 43-44 2 p. (2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2018).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • 2016

    Fabricating nanoporous metallic films as components of composite membranes

    Detisch, M., Bhattacharyya, D., Balk, T. J. & Detisch, M. J., 2016, 26th Annual Meeting of the North American Membrane Society, NAMS 2016. p. 110 1 p. (26th Annual Meeting of the North American Membrane Society, NAMS 2016).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • In-vacuo work function measurement of dispenser cathodes

    Swartzentruber, P. D., Detisch, M. J. & Balk, T. J., Sep 6 2016, 2016 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2016. 7561924. (2016 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2016).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Quantum mechanical investigation of thermionic emission from Os-coated tungsten dispenser cathodes

    Zhou, Q., Balk, T. J. & Beck, M. J., Sep 6 2016, 2016 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2016. 7561810. (2016 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2016).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    1 Scopus citations
  • 2015

    Observations on cutting edge radius effects in cryogenic machining of porous tungsten

    Busbaher, D., Schoop, J., Jawahir, I. S. & Balk, T. J., Aug 25 2015, Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2015. 7223754. (Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2015).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    4 Scopus citations
  • 2014

    Direct work function measurement of activated M-type dispenser cathodes

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, T. J., Tarter, J. O. & Busbaher, D., 2014, IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014. p. 135-136 2 p. 6857526. (IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • High performance infiltrant-free cryogenic machining of 82% density porous tungsten under computer numerical control

    Schoop, J., Jawahir, I. S., Balk, T. J. & Busbaher, D., 2014, IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014. p. 167-168 2 p. 6857543. (IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    3 Scopus citations
  • Stable structures and electron density of states of W-Os alloys for dispenser cathodes

    Zhou, Q., Balk, T. J. & Beck, M. J., 2014, IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014. p. 525-526 2 p. 6857721. (IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2014).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    3 Scopus citations
  • 2013

    Composition and work function relationship in Os-Ru-W ternary alloys

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, T. J., Roberts, S. & Effgen, M., 2013, 14th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2013 - Proceedings. 6571111. (14th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2013 - Proceedings).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • Work function measurements on coated and uncoated tungsten dispenser cathodes using a Kelvin probe

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, J. & Tarter, J. O., 2013, 14th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2013 - Proceedings. 6571038. (14th IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2013 - Proceedings).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • 2012

    Alternative ceramic potting materials for dispenser cathodes

    Swartzentruber, P., Collier, M., Dewees, R., Epperson, W., Poole, C., Rupp, B., Bowling, D., Fadde, E., Floyd, A., Rottmann, P., Wilson, R., Balk, T. J., Roberts, S., Tarter, J. & Effgen, M., 2012, 2012 IEEE 13th International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2012. p. 483-484 2 p. 6262242. (2012 IEEE 13th International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2012).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • Microstructural influence of OsRu thin films on dispenser cathodes

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, T. J., Roberts, S. & Effgen, M., 2012, 2012 IEEE 13th International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2012. p. 163-164 2 p. 6262116. (2012 IEEE 13th International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2012).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    4 Scopus citations
  • Variations in properties of Mo-Re sheet Effects on dispenser cathode fabrication

    Tarter, J. O., Swartzentruber, P., Balk, J., Fryman, A., Rabek, C. & Batts, A., 2012, 2012 IEEE 9th International Vacuum Electron Sources Conference, IVESC 2012. p. 477-478 2 p. 6264203. (2012 IEEE 9th International Vacuum Electron Sources Conference, IVESC 2012).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • 2011

    Alternative ceramic potting materials for dispenser cathodes

    Balk, T. J., Rottmann, P., Bowling, D., Fadde, E., Floyd, A., Wilson, R. & Roberts, S., 2011, 2011 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC-2011. p. 399-400 2 p. 5747044. (2011 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC-2011).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • Characterization of osmium-ruthenium thin films for cathode coatings

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, T. J. & Roberts, S., 2011, Materials Processing and Energy Materials. p. 613-617 5 p. (TMS Annual Meeting; vol. 1).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • Influence of Os-Ru coating on closed-space diode tests of M-Type dispenser cathodes

    Swartzentruber, P., Balk, T. J. & Roberts, S., 2011, 2011 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC-2011. p. 401-402 2 p. 5747045. (2011 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC-2011).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    3 Scopus citations
  • 2010

    6.2: Optimizing osmium-ruthenium films to inhibit tungsten interdiffusion

    Swartzentruber, P. D., Li, W. C., Balk, T. J. & Roberts, S., 2010, 2010 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2010. p. 73-74 2 p. 5503598. (2010 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2010).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    6 Scopus citations
  • 2009

    Effects of annealing on microstructure of osmium-ruthenium thin films

    Li, W. C., Roberts, S. & Balk, T. J., 2009, 2009 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2009. p. 177-178 2 p. 5193510. (2009 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC 2009).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    4 Scopus citations
  • 2008

    Characterization of osmium-ruthenium coatings for porous tungsten dispenser cathodes

    Balk, T. J., Li, W. C. & Roberts, S., 2008, 2008 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC with 9th IEEE International Vacuum Electron Sources Conference, IVESC. p. 42-43 2 p. 4556406. (2008 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference, IVEC with 9th IEEE International Vacuum Electron Sources Conference, IVESC).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    6 Scopus citations
  • Microstructure and hydrogen absorption/desorption behavior of nanoporous Pd thin films

    Li, W. C., Schendel, S. C. & Balk, T. J., 2008, Hydrogen Economy. p. 27-32 6 p. (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings; vol. 1098).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

  • 2006

    Mechanical behavior and microstructure of nanoporous gold films

    Sun, Y. & John Balk, T., 2006, Mechanics of Nanoscale Materials and Devices. p. 1-6 6 p. (Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings; vol. 924).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    2 Scopus citations
  • Passivation effects in copper thin films

    Wiederhirn, G., Balk, T. J., Dehm, G., Nucci, J., Richter, G. & Arzt, E., Feb 7 2006, STRESS-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN METALLIZATION: Eighth International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization. p. 185-191 7 p. (AIP Conference Proceedings; vol. 817).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

    1 Scopus citations