Low birth weight (LBW) is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We have developed a mouse model of LBW resulting from undernutrition during pregnancy. Restriction of maternal food intake from day 12.5 to 18.5 of pregnancy results in a 23% decrease in birth weight (P < 0.001), with normalization after birth. However, offspring of undernutrition pregnancies develop progressive, severe glucose intolerance by 6 months. To identify early defects that are responsible for this phenotype, we analyzed mice of undernutrition pregnancies at age 2 months, before the onset of glucose intolerance. Fed insulin levels were 1.7-fold higher in mice of undernutrition pregnancies (P = 0.01 vs. controls). However, insulin sensitivity was normal in mice of undernutrition pregnancies, with normal insulin tolerance, insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and isolated muscle and adipose glucose uptake. Although insulin clearance was mildly impaired in mice of undernutrition pregnancies, the major metabolic phenotype in young mice of undernutrition pregnancies was dysregulation of insulin secretion. Despite normal β-cell mass, islets from normoglycemic mice of undernutrition pregnancies showed basal hypersecretion of insulin, complete lack of responsiveness to glucose, and a 2.5-fold increase in hexokinase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that, at least in mice, primary β-cell dysfunction may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of LBW-associated type 2 diabetes.
|Number of pages||10|
|State||Published - Mar 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism