4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, and neurodegenerative diseases: A toxic combination illuminated by redox proteomics studies

Marzia Perluigi, Raffaella Coccia, D. Allan Butterfield

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

171 Scopus citations


Significance: Among different forms of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation comprises the interaction of free radicals with polyunsaturated fatty acids, which in turn leads to the formation of highly reactive electrophilic aldehydes. Among these, the most abundant aldehydes are 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde, while acrolein is the most reactive. HNE is considered a robust marker of oxidative stress and a toxic compound for several cell types. Proteins are particularly susceptible to modification caused by HNE, and adduct formation plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes. Recent Advances: With the outstanding progress of proteomics, the identification of putative biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders has been the main focus of several studies and will continue to be a difficult task. Critical Issues: The present review focuses on the role of lipid peroxidation, particularly of HNE-induced protein modification, in neurodegenerative diseases. By comparing results obtained in different neurodegenerative diseases, it may be possible to identify both similarities and specific differences in addition to better characterize selective neurodegenerative phenomena associated with protein dysfunction. Results obtained in our laboratory and others support the common deregulation of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in neurodegeneration. Future Directions: Research towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration together with identification of specific targets of oxidative damage is urgently required. Redox proteomics will contribute to broaden the knowledge in regard to potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and may also provide insight into damaged metabolic networks and potential targets for modulation of disease progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1590-1609
Number of pages20
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jan 12 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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