A clinical measure for the assessment of problem solving in brain-injured adults

Robert C. Marshall, Colleen M. Karow, Claudia A. Morelli, Kristen King Iden, Judith Dixon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Rapid Assessment of Problem Solving (RAPS) is a clinical test of verbal problem-solving skills for brain-injured persons. This modification of F. A. Mosher and J. R. Hornsby's (1966) Twenty Questions Test (20Q) reduces the memory demands of the test for brain-injured clients. This article provides background on the 20Q Test and modifications made for RAPS. It describes RAPS materials, administration, and scoring procedures and reports RAPS results for 70 normal participants. Normal participants solved RAPS problems with an average of 5 questions. Questions were predominantly constraint seeking and focused on semantic categories or features. Normal participants also reflected substantial variability in their performance on RAPS. This appeared to be related to 2 metacognitive abilities associated with problem solving, planning, and shifting set. The performance of 3 chronic traumatically brain injured individuals is also described and compared to the normal sample to illustrate clinical applications of RAPS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-348
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Speech-Language Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2003


  • Assessment
  • Brain injured
  • Problem solving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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