A comparison of multiple urine markers for interstitial cystitis

Deborah R. Erickson, Sharon X. Xie, Veer P. Bhavanandan, Marcia A. Wheeler, Robert E. Hurst, Lawrence M. Demers, Leslie Kushner, Susan K. Keay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

153 Scopus citations


Purpose: We measured several urine markers in 24-hour specimens from patients with interstitial cystitis and healthy controls. For each marker we determined whether the urine level was significantly different in interstitial cystitis and control cases, and whether the marker level correlated with the symptom score. Materials and Methods: Study participants included 36 female patients with interstitial cystitis and 36 age matched female volunteers. Multiple urine aliquots were obtained to measure the various markers. Results: Certain markers were significantly increased in interstitial cystitis, including antiproliferative factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 and interleukin (IL)-6. Markers significantly decreased in interstitial cystitis were heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, cyclic guanosine monophosphate and methylhistamine. Other markers were not significantly different in the interstitial cystitis and control groups, including total glycosaminoglycans, epitectin, hyaluronic acid, IL-8, IL-1 and nitrates plus nitrites. IGF-1 was undetectable in 24-hour urine samples but spot voided samples from the same interstitial cystitis population had IGF-1 levels similar to previously reported levels. The only significant association of marker with symptom score was a positive correlation of IL-6 with nocturia. For all markers the conclusions were the same whether the marker was normalized to creatinine or to 24 hours. Conclusions: This study confirmed several previously reported urine alterations in interstitial cystitis, including increased anti-proliferative factor, epidermal growth factor, IGF binding protein-3 and IL-6, and decreased heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Of all markers studied anti-proliferative factor had the least overlap in the interstitial cystitis and control groups, and so it is the most likely candidate to become a diagnostic test.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2461-2469
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by the Interstitial Cystitis Association (Fishbein Foundation), and in part by National Institutes of Health Grants R01 DK38311 and DK 49450.


  • Biological markers
  • Bladder
  • Cystitis, interstitial
  • Growth substances
  • Signs and symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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