We present a conceptual model that shows how hysteresis can emerge in dynamic island systems given simple constraints on trait-mediated processes. Over time, many real and habitat islands cycle between phases of increasing and decreasing size and connectivity to a mainland species pool. As these phases alternate, the dominant process driving species composition switches between colonization and extinction. Both processes are mediated by interactions between organismal traits and environmental constraints: colonization probability is affected by a species' ability to cross the intervening matrix between a population source and the island; population persistence (or extinction) is driven by the minimum spatial requirements for sustaining an isolated population. Because different suites of traits often mediate these two processes, similar environmental conditions can lead to differences in species compositions at two points of time. Thus, the Constraint-based model of Dynamic Island Biogeography (C-DIB) illustrates the possible role of hysteresis-the dependency of outcomes not only on the current system state but also the system's history of environmental change-in affecting populations and communities in insular systems. The model provides a framework upon which additional considerations of lag times, biotic interactions, evolution, and other processes can be incorporated. Importantly, it provides a testable framework to study the physical and biological constraints on populations and communities across diverse taxa, scales, and systems.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
for comments on an earlier manuscript draft ? Jim (2018) A constraint-based model reveals Brown, Jordan Okie, and Mariano Soley-Guardia hysteresis in island biogeography. bioRxiv, provided helpful discussions early in the project. RPA doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/251926. acknowledges funding from the U 堀S 堀 National ScienceButaye, J., Jacquemyn, H. & Hermy, M. (2001) Differential Foundation ?NSF DBI ? ? and National Aeronaucolticsonization causing non-random forest and Space Administration 縃NSSC K 嘀 to Mary E ? Blair of the American Museum of Natural History 缃堀 agricultural landscape. Ecography, 24, 369–380.plant community structure in a fragmented
We thank the Anderson lab as well as Peter White and the Hurlbert lab at the University of North Carolina for comments on an earlier manuscript draft. Jim Brown, Jordan Okie, and Mariano Soley-Guardia provided helpful discussions early in the project. RPA acknowledges funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF DBI-1661510) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC18K0406; to Mary E. Blair of the American Museum of Natural History). JRB was supported through the UNC Postdoctoral Program for Faculty Diversity, the Duke University Population Research Institute (DUPRI), and currently the Bridging Biodiversity and Conservation Science Program at the University of Arizona. Our collaboration was catalyzed by a Shadle plenary talk at the American Society of Mammalogists annual meeting in 2014 and the University of New Mexico's Biology Seminar series in 2015.
© the authors.
- Environmental cycles
- Minimum viable population
- Multiple stable states
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Global and Planetary Change
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics