A content analysis of hand hygiene materials targeting elementary-age children

E. T. Quilliam, B. A. McKay, M. K. Lapinski, G. Viken, J. Plasencia, Z. Wang, A. Fraser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Millions of dollars have been spent on the design and dissemination of educational materials to improve handwashing to prevent infectious diseases. School-age children have been the focus of many of these efforts; yet little is known about the content of these materials. This study uses content analysis to examine the theoretical and motivational trends as well as the communication approach used in a sample of hand hygiene intervention materials targeting elementary-age children. Two trained coders analyzed 144 communication materials. Study results indicate that educational materials infrequently exhibit information consistent with theories of communication for behavior change, commonly use fear-based messaging, and rarely recommend using technology in the design of the interventions. Implications for future research and the design of more strategic, child-focused hand hygiene interventions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)481-491
Number of pages11
JournalHealth Education Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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