A gamified approach to assessing mental rotation in virtual reality

Kristin Alicia Bartlett, Almudena Palacios-Ibáñez, Jorge Dorribo Camba

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


We present a new spatial skills assessment tool, the Virtual Reality Mental Rotation Assessment. Results suggest that the gamified immersive experience enabled increased levels of engagement and motivation and the instrument was likely not biased in favor or people with past virtual reality (VR) experience. Using VR did not appear to introduce additional problems beyond those present in a traditional spatial test, as moving one’s body to change perspective did not correlate with improved performance. Our findings have implications for training and assessing spatial skills in engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2805-2814
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the Design Society
StatePublished - 2024
Event2024 International Design Society Conference, Design 2024 - Cavtat, Dubrovnik, Croatia
Duration: May 20 2024May 23 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Proceedings of the Design Society. All rights reserved.


  • design education
  • mental rotation
  • spatial skills
  • virtual reality (VR)
  • visualisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Software
  • Modeling and Simulation


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