A Gingrich-style stocking chart for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests

Ferhat Kara, Edward F. Loewenstein, John M. Lhotka, John S. Kush

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Because of the dramatic decline in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) acreage, concern about restoration and management of these ecosystems has increased in recent years and created a need for effective silvicultural management tools. Stocking charts are useful quantitative tools to allocate tree area to meet specific silvicultural objectives including restoration; however, there has not been one created specifically for longleaf pine forests. Because successful management of longleaf pine is often associated with density management at or near the onset of full site occupancy, which is readily determined on a stocking chart, the development of the chart for the species was needed. We developed a Gingrich-style stocking chart for longleaf pine forests using published approaches and models from the literature. Average maximum density (A-line stocking) was determined using forest inventory data whereas onset of full site occupancy (B-line stocking) was derived from an existing open-growth crown width equation. Reduced major axis regression was used to determine size-density relationships because it gives less biased and more efficient estimates than ordinary least squares regression. Previous studies, physiological data, and longleaf pine silvical traits all support the size-density characteristics depicted on this stocking chart. We found that percent stocking was better than basal area as a predictor of tree growth, although the difference between the two measures was not significant in understocked stands. The difference between percent stocking and stand density index as a predictor of tree growth was not statistically significant. With the stocking chart presented in this article, tree area relationships can be effectively and easily used to achieve specific silvicultural objectives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-315
Number of pages9
JournalForest Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 28 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of American Foresters 2018.


  • A-line stocking
  • B-line stocking
  • Basal area
  • Relative density

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Forestry
  • Ecology
  • Ecological Modeling


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