A highly soluble redox shuttle with superior rate performance in overcharge protection

Susan A. Odom, Aman Kaur, Selin Ergun, Corrine F. Elliott, Matthew D. Casselman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


The demand for a stable and compatible redox shuttles for use in lithium-ion batteries has prompted us to explore strategies to tune and improve the properties of redox shuttles. We have studied over 50 new diarylamine derivatives synthesized in our laboratory including one compound in which we introduced trifluoromethyl groups (-CF3) at the positions para to the nitrogen atom in N-ethylphenothiazine (EPT). The high electronegativity of the CF3 group raises the oxidation potential, and its incorporation also significantly increases solubility in battery electrolyte. Here we report 3,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)-N-ethylphenothiazine (BCF3EPT) as a new redox shuttle, which we have observed to have the highest reported solubility in battery electrolyte of all redox shuttles that maintain extended overcharge performance. We have compared its performance with 1,3-di-tert-butyl-2,5-dimethoxybenzene (DBB), EPT, and other robust redox shuttles. In our hands, overcharge cycling of BCF3EPT far surpasses any reported redox shuttle, and - because it can be dissolved at higher concentrations - it tolerates faster charging rates than both DBB and EPT.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMaterials Challenges for Energy Storage Across Multiple Scales
EditorsA. Cresce
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781510806207
StatePublished - 2015
Event2014 MRS Fall Meeting - Boston, United States
Duration: Nov 30 2014Dec 5 2014

Publication series

NameMaterials Research Society Symposium Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0272-9172


Conference2014 MRS Fall Meeting
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Materials Research Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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