A Lab Study on the Factors Effecting Settlement and Electrical Resistivity of Gypsum Sands

Raghava A. Bhamidipati, Michael E. Kalinski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


A large number of engineering hazards on constructions based on gypsum soils have been documented all over the world. Gypsum sands are especially found in the dry parts of the world. The problem of dissolution and settlement is one of the most widespread among gypsum soils. Gypsum sands are complex materials and the effect of the geotechnical parameters on settlement behavior of gypsum soils has been studied by several researchers over the years, but the results were found to be varying. Also, there have not been many geophysical investigation techniques that were used to study gypsum soils. In this study, the effect of several factors like gypsum content, water content, leaching and dissolution of gypsum and time on the settlement of reconstituted gypsum sands were investigated. Settlement due to initial moisture and leaching was studied by subjecting the soil specimens to a rapid drained loading of 200 kPa. The long-term settlement of the soil samples was studied using the consolidation test setup. Further, electrical resistivity tests were conducted on the soil samples using a four-electrode soil resistivity box. The effect of moisture content, gypsum content and density on electrical resistivity was investigated. The studies showed that settlement of the gypsum sands increased with gypsum content, initial moisture, leaching and time. The soil box resistivity tests showed that, moisture content had a major influence on resistivity, while gypsum content and density had less influence on the resistivity. Based on the results, it was concluded that electrical resistivity testing could be a moderately successful method for estimating the settlement of gypsum sands.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGround Characterization and Foundations - Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical Conference, IGC 2020
EditorsC. N. Satyanarayana Reddy, K. Muthukkumaran, Neelima Satyam, Ravikiran Vaidya
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2022
EventIndian Geotechnical Conference, IGC 2020 - Virtual, Online
Duration: Dec 17 2020Dec 19 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Civil Engineering
ISSN (Print)2366-2557
ISSN (Electronic)2366-2565


ConferenceIndian Geotechnical Conference, IGC 2020
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.


  • Electrical resistivity
  • Gypsum
  • Sand
  • Settlement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering


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