A live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus proviral vaccine with a modified S2 gene provides protection from detectable infection by intravenous virulent virus challenge of experimentally inoculated horses

Feng Li, Jodi K. Craigo, Laryssa Howe, Jonathan D. Steckbeck, Sheila Cook, Charles Issel, Ronald C. Montelaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Previous evaluations of inactivated whole-virus and envelope subunit vaccines to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have revealed a broad spectrum of efficacy ranging from highly type-specific protection to severe enhancement of viral replication and disease in experimentally immunized equids. Among experimental animal lentivirus vaccines, immunizations with live attenuated viral strains have proven most effective, but the vaccine efficacy has been shown to be highly dependent on the nature and severity of the vaccine virus attenuation. We describe here for the first time the characterization of an experimental attenuated proviral vaccine, EIAVUKΔS2, based on inactivation of the S2 accessory gene to down regulate in vivo replication without affecting in vitro growth properties. The results of these studies demonstrated that immunization with EIAVUKΔS2 elicited mature virus-specific immune responses by 6 months and that this vaccine immunity provided protection from disease and detectable infection by intravenous challenge with a reference virulent biological clone, EIAVPV. This level of protection was observed in each of the six experimental horses challenged with the reference virulent EIAVPV by using a low-dose multiple-exposure protocol (three administrations of 10 median horse infectious doses [HID50], intravenous) designed to mimic field exposures and in all three experimentally immunized ponies challenged intravenously with a single inoculation of 3,000 HID50. In contrast, naïve equids subjected to the low- or high-dose challenge develop a detectable infection of challenge virus and acute disease within several weeks. Thus, these data demonstrate that the EIAV S2 gene provides an optimal site for modification to achieve the necessary balance between attenuation to suppress virulence and replication potential to sufficiently drive host immune responses to produce vaccine immunity to viral exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7244-7253
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume77
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'A live attenuated equine infectious anemia virus proviral vaccine with a modified S2 gene provides protection from detectable infection by intravenous virulent virus challenge of experimentally inoculated horses'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this