A novel restricted single-isocenter stereotactic body radiotherapy (RESIST) method for synchronous multiple lung lesions to minimize setup uncertainties

Lana Sanford Critchfield, Mark E. Bernard, Marcus E. Randall, Ronald C. McGarry, Damodar Pokhrel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Treating multiple lung lesions synchronously using a single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plan can improve treatment efficiency and patient compliance. However, due to set up uncertainty, aligning multiple lung tumors on a single daily cone beam CT (CBCT) image has shown clinically unacceptable loss of target(s) coverage. Herein, we propose a Restricted Single-Isocenter Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (RESIST), an alternative treatment that mitigates patient setup uncertainties. Twenty-one patients with two lung lesions were treated with single-isocenter VMAT-SBRT using a 6MV-FFF beam to 54 Gy in 3 fractions (n = 7) or 50 Gy in 5 fractions (n = 14) prescribed to 70-80% isodose line. To minimize setup uncertainties, each plan was re-planned using the RESIST method, utilizing a single-isocenter placed at the patient's mediastinum. It allows for an individual plan to be created for each tumor, using the first plan as the base-dose for the second plan, while still allowing both tumors to be treated in the same session. The technique uses novel features in Eclipse, including dynamic conformal arc (DCA)-based dose and aperture shape controller before each VMAT optimization. RESIST plans provided better target dose conformity (p < 0.001) and gradient indices (p < 0.001) and lower dose to adjacent critical organs. Using RESIST to treat synchronous lung lesions with VMAT-SBRT significantly reduces plan complexity as demonstrated by smaller beam modulation factors (p < 0.001), without unreasonably increasing treatment time. RESIST reduces the chance of a geometric miss due by allowing CBCT matching of one tumor at a time. Placement of isocenter at the mediastinum avoids potential patient/gantry collisions, provides greater flexibility of noncoplanar arcs and eliminates the need for multiple couch movements during CBCT imaging. Efficacy of RESIST has been demonstrated for two lesions and can potentially be used for more lesions. Clinical implementation of this technique is ongoing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-425
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Dosimetry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists


  • Lung SBRT
  • Set up errors
  • Single-isocenter
  • Synchronous multiple lesions
  • VMAT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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