A phase i dose-escalation trial of 2-deoxy-d-glucose alone or combined with docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors

Luis E. Raez, Kyriakos Papadopoulos, Alejandro D. Ricart, E. Gabriella Chiorean, Robert S. Dipaola, Mark N. Stein, Caio M. Rocha Lima, James J. Schlesselman, Khaled Tolba, Virginia K. Langmuir, Stewart Kroll, Donald T. Jung, Metin Kurtoglu, Joseph Rosenblatt, Theodore J. Lampidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

347 Scopus citations


Purpose: This phase I trial was initiated to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) in combination with docetaxel, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods: A modified accelerated titration design was used. 2DG was administered orally once daily for 7 days every other week starting at a dose of 2 mg/kg and docetaxel was administered intravenously at 30 mg/m2 for 3 of every 4 weeks beginning on day 1 of week 2. Following the completion of dose escalation, cohorts of patients were then treated with 2DG for 21 days or every day of each 4-week cycle for up to 12 cycles. Results: Thirty-four patients were enrolled: 21 on every other week, 6 on a 21 of 28-day cycle and 7 on the continuous 2DG dosing schedule. There were no dose-limiting toxicities which met the MTD criteria. The most common adverse events were fatigue, sweating, dizziness and nausea mimicking the hypoglycemic symptoms expected from 2DG administration. Therefore, 63 mg/kg was selected as the clinically tolerable dose. The most significant adverse effects noted at 63-88 mg/kg doses were reversible hyperglycemia (100 %), gastrointestinal bleeding (6 %) and reversible grade 3 QTc prolongation (22 %). Eleven patients (32 %) had stable disease, 1 patient (3 %) partial response and 22 patients (66 %) progressive disease as their best response. There was no PK interaction between 2DG and docetaxel. Conclusion: The recommended dose of 2DG in combination with weekly docetaxel is 63 mg/kg/day with tolerable adverse effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-530
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments We thank the patients who participated in this trial and the study coordinators, nurses, clinical research assistants and doctors who assisted with the research. This research is supported by Threshold Pharmaceuticals Inc.


  • 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose
  • Breast cancer
  • Docetaxel
  • Head and neck cancers
  • Lung cancer
  • Phase I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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