A Policy Mapping Analysis of the U.S. Congressional Approach to Medical Aid-in-Dying

Nancy Kusmaul, Ji Hyang Cheon, Allison Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study examines the goals of medical aid-in-dying (MAID) legislation introduced to the US Congress from 1994–2020 using a policy mapping analysis approach. Using congress.gov, we identified 98 bills, 23 bills were analyzed in this study. Most of the bills aimed to restrict the use of federal funds, to regulate the drugs commonly used for MAID, to prohibit the development of policies or practices supporting MAID, and to regulate practitioners’ roles in MAID. In practice, these bills would limit patient access to MAID by restricting drugs, funds, health care services, legal assistance, policy, and research. These findings suggest there lacks congressional support for MAID, even though polls of the public are divided yet favorable. Policymakers who support MAID should consider affirmative policies that 1) prevent MAID policies from discriminating against vulnerable groups, 2) support funding to study the use of MAID, and 3) build avenues to allow all qualified people to access MAID in places where it is legal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-156
Number of pages18
JournalOmega (United States)
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • federal policy
  • medical aid-in-dying
  • policy analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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