We systematically reviewed more than 25 years of applied research examining the system of least prompts response prompting procedure with individuals with disabilities. We identified 123 peer-reviewed studies including 413 participants receiving instruction with the system of least prompts. A total of 252 experimental designs were evaluated, with 51 designs indicating a functional relation and the presence of 154 demonstrations of effect across 91 individuals. Our data indicate that the system of least prompts is an evidenced-based practice for teaching chained responses related to community, self-care, and vocational skills to individuals with moderate intellectual disability who are 13 years of age or older. In addition, we present and discuss a method for analyzing and aggregating data from single-case studies to account for noneffects and publication bias when identifying if an intervention meets standards as an evidence-based practice.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Remedial and Special Education|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2019|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Dr. Brian Bottge for comments on many previous versions of this manuscript. The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
© Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2018.
- least-to-most prompting
- publication bias
- response prompting
- single-case design
- system of least prompts
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health