A review on wire arc additive manufacturing: Monitoring, control and a framework of automated system

Chunyang Xia, Zengxi Pan, Joseph Polden, Huijun Li, Yanling Xu, Shanben Chen, Yuming Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations


Wire arc additive manufacturing technology (WAAM) has become a very promising alternative to high-value large metal components in many manufacturing industries. Due to its long process cycle time and arc-based deposition, defect monitoring, process stability and control are critical for the WAAM system to be used in the industry. Although major progress has been made in process development, path slicing and programming, and material analysis, a comprehensive process monitoring, and control system are yet to be developed. This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of sensing and control design suitable for a WAAM system, including technologies developed for the generic Arc Welding process, the Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing process and laser Additive Manufacturing. Particular focus is given to the integration of sensor-based feedback control, and how they could be implemented into the WAAM process to improve its accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. The paper concludes by proposing a framework for sensor-based monitoring and control system for the GMAW based WAAM process. This framework provides a blueprint for the monitoring and control strategies during the WAAM process and aims to identify and reduce defects using information fusion techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-45
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Systems
StatePublished - Oct 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the China Scholarship Council for financial support (NO. 201704910782 ) and UOW Welding and Industrial Automation Research Centre .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Control
  • Monitoring
  • WAAM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'A review on wire arc additive manufacturing: Monitoring, control and a framework of automated system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this