A secure cross-layer architecture for reactive routing in vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communications

Fadlallah Chbib, Sherali Zeadally, Rida Khatoun, Lyes Khoukhi, Walid Fahs, Jamal Haydar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vehicular communication is one of the essential technologies for increasing road safety, traffic efficiency, and comfort for pedestrians and drivers. In this context, the internet of vehicles is an emerging paradigm. However, with advances in vehicular communication, security threats have also emerged. Several vulnerabilities exist in vehicular communications, including Denial of Service (DoS), black hole attacks, and fabrication attacks. A malicious attack alters the packet information in a fabrication attack, causing congestion and high delays in the vehicular network. We propose two algorithms to protect the routing protocols in a vehicle-to-vehicle scenario against several attacks that target confidentiality, authentication, privacy, and integrity. The first algorithm detects the malicious behavior of each vehicle by calculating the percentage of modified destination addresses. If it exceeds a predetermined threshold, this vehicle is classified as malicious. Otherwise, it is a normal vehicle. The second algorithm detects malicious modifications based on the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) by monitoring the SIR value, adjusting the distance, altering the power received, and changing the transmitted power value. We performed simulations using the SUMO 0.22 simulator and Network Simulator (NS). The results obtained show an improvement in End-to-End (E2E) delay, Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), and reduced overhead.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100541
JournalVehicular Communications
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped us improve the quality and presentation of this paper. This work is supported by the research chair connected cars and Cyber Security (C3S) founded by Nokia, Renault, Thales, Valeo, Wavestone, Fondation Mines-Telecom, and Telecom Paris. Sherali Zeadally was supported by a 2021-2022 Fulbright U.S. scholar grant award administered by the U.S. Department of Stat's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs and through its cooperating agency, the Institute of International Education (“IIE”).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc.


  • Attack
  • Reactive routing protocol
  • Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR)
  • Vehicular communication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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