A self-report measure for the ICD-11 dimensional trait model proposal: The personality inventory for ICD-11

Joshua R. Oltmanns, Thomas A. Widiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

125 Scopus citations


Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-169
Number of pages16
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Psychological Association.


  • ICD-11
  • Maladaptive personality
  • Personality disorders
  • Personality traits
  • Self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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