A survey of polymorphisms detected from sequences of popular beef breeds

W. M. Snelling, G. L. Bennett, J. W. Keele, L. A. Kuehn, T. G. McDaneld, T. P. Smith, R. M. Thallman, T. S. Kalbfleisch, E. J. Pollak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The genome sequence was obtained from 270 sires used in the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. These bulls included 154 purebred AI sires from GPE Cycle VII breeds (Hereford, Angus, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus), 83 F1 crosses of those breeds, and 33 AI sires from 8 other breeds. The exome capture sequence targeting coding regions of the genome was obtained from 176 of these bulls. Sequence reads were mapped to the UMD 3.1 bovine genome assembly; a mean of 2.5-fold (x) coverage per bull was obtained from the genomic sequence, and the targeted exons were covered at a mean of 20.0x. Over 28.8 million biallelic sequence variants were detected where each allele was present in at least 3 different bulls. These included 22.0 million previously reported variants and 94.1% of the 774,660 autosomal and BTA X SNP on the BovineHD BeadChip assay (HD). More than 92% of the variants detected in targeted exons were also detected from the low-coverage genome sequence. Less than 1% of the variants detected from the combined genome and exome sequence occurred in annotated protein-coding sequences and 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) surrounding the 19,994 annotated protein coding regions. Variation was detected in the coding sequence or UTR of 96.8% of the genes: loss-of-function variants were predicted for 3,298 genes, 14,973 contained nonsynonymous variants, 11,276 had variation in UTR, and 17,721 genes contained synonymous variants. Minor allele frequencies (MAF) were <0.05 for 47.8% of the coding sequence and UTR variants, and MAF distributions were skewed toward low MAF. In contrast, 11.1% of the HD SNP detected in these bulls had MAF < 0.05, and the distribution was skewed toward higher MAF. Genes involved in immune system processes and immune response were overrepresented among those genes containing high MAF loss-of-function and non-synonymous polymorphisms. Detected variants were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information genetic variation database (dbSNP) under the handle MARC, batch GPE_Bull_GenEx.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5128-5143
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


  • Beef cattle
  • Genome sequence
  • Polymorphism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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