A Systematic Review of Clozapine Concentration-Dose Ratio from Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Studies in Children and Adolescents Treated with Clozapine for Mental Disorders

Sara Jiménez-Fernández, Manuel Gurpegui, Christoph U. Correll, Jose De Leon, Georgios Schoretsanitis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background:Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine in children and adolescents has received insufficient attention. Calculation of concentration-to-dose (C/D) ratios from trough steady-state concentrations estimate drug clearance.Methods:A systematic electronic literature search was conducted in 3 article databases from inception until January 10, 2023, and articles reporting clozapine concentrations in children and adolescents were retrieved. The pharmacokinetic quality of the studies was assessed, and clozapine C/D ratios were calculated using the sample mean clozapine dose and concentration.Results:Of the 37 articles of potential interest, only 7 reported clozapine trough and steady-state concentrations. After excluding case reports and a study confounded by fluvoxamine, 4 studies on psychosis from Europe and the United States were included. The clozapine C/D ratios were similar to published adult values and ranged from 0.82 to 1.24 with a weighted mean of 1.08 ng/mL per mg/d. The weighted means were 334 mg/d for the dose and 380 ng/mL for the concentration. The stratified analysis of the weighted mean clozapine C/D ratios from 2 studies showed lower values in 52 male (1.05 ng/mL per mg/d) than in 46 female (1.46 ng/mL per mg/d) children and adolescents, with values similar to those reported for European adult nonsmokers. Two female adolescents had high clozapine C/D ratios (2.54 ng/mL per mg/d), an Asian American patient with borderline obesity and a patient with intellectual disability with low dosage (mean = 102 mg/d) and concentration (mean = 55 ng/mL).Conclusions:Reports on clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring in children and adolescents are limited in number and quality. Future studies should focus on basic pharmacokinetic issues, such as stratification by sex, smoking, and relevant comedications with inductive or inhibitory properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-180
Number of pages11
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Volume46
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • children
  • clozapine/blood
  • clozapine/metabolism
  • clozapine/pharmacokinetics
  • drug monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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