A translational science approach to community-based participatory research using methodological triangulation

Jennifer R. Warren, Brandi M. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim: To advance the science of translational research and triangulation through a case study of community-based participatory research (CBPR) study on children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Subjects and Methods: A total of 130 African American parents and children were recruited to participate in 13 parent advisory board key informant interviews (n = 6), parent tobacco use and behavior survey (n = 63), children’s (aged 6 months to 5 years) salivary assays (n = 43), and three member check focus groups (n = 18). Results: Data were collected and analyzed separately, and overall findings were evaluated for consistency, inconsistency, divergent data, and data saturation using a data matrix table aligned with the social ecological model. Out of 43 children, 39.5% had levels of cotinine, suggesting high ETS exposure. The findings demonstrated that extremely low knowledge on how to protect children from exposure as well as low education and poverty increase the likelihood that parents do not believe in the harms of ETS. Custodial parents cannot control noncustodial parents smoking around children and 28% of children live in homes with no or partial smoking restrictions. Children’s healthcare providers are inconsistently inquiring about ETS exposure. Children living in attached homes had a greater likelihood of being exposed to ETS by another adult outside the home. Conclusion: CBPR is an effective strategy for translating science into promising community-informed interventions that meet the cultural and social needs of medically underserved populations. Integrated diverse data sets were utilized in the formation of a parental intervention targeting factors identified in the matrix.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)447-458
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Public Health (Germany)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by ClearWay Minnesota (grant no. RC-2007-0028). SM

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Childcare centers
  • Community-based participatory research
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Translational research
  • Triangulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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