A Virtual Adaptation of the Taped Problems Intervention for Increasing Math Fact Fluency

Elizabeth McCallum, Ara J. Schmitt, Kathleen B. Aspiranti, Kristen E. Mahony, Alyson C. Honaker, Laurie A. Christy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In response to restrictions on visitors within school buildings during the COVID-19 pandemic, the evidencebased math fact fluency procedure known as the taped problems intervention was adapted for use in a virtual setting. The present study used a multiple-probe across participants design to evaluate the effects of the adapted intervention on the subtraction fact fluency of three elementary school students with varying degrees of math difficulties. Researchers also measured whether fluency gains would generalize to subtraction fact family problems that were not targeted within the study procedures. Visual analysis of results indicated math fluency improvements across all students, regardless of initial performance level, but no evidence of generalization effects for any participant. Additionally, to further investigate intervention effects, two effect size measures were calculated (WC-SMD and NAP) and each participant’s rate of improvement was measured in two ways. Slopes (digits correct per minute [DCM] gains per session) of baseline and intervention phases were compared, and DCM gains per intervention time were investigated. Discussion focuses on implications for providing academic interventions in virtual learning environments, the importance of direct instruction for subtraction fact fluency, as well as future directions for researchers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSchool Psychology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022. American Psychological Association


  • Math fact fluency
  • Math intervention
  • Single-case design
  • Taped problems intervention
  • Virtual learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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