Absorption and Delivery of Nutrients for Milk Protein Synthesis by Portal-Drained Viscera

C. K. Reynolds, D. L. Harmon, M. J. Cecava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations

Abstract

The predictability of diet effects on milk composition is limited by the lack of understanding of the metabolic transformations that absorbed nutrients undergo within the portal-drained viscera and liver of high yielding dairy cows. The mass of splanchnic tissues increases dramatically in early lactation, but little is known about the regulation of gut growth and adaptation in early lactation, and further research may provide strategies for optimizing gut adaptation. Glucose is critical for milk synthesis, but portal-drained visceral tissues normally use rather than absorb glucose on a net basis. Dietary starch of low ruminal digestibility increases postruminal starch digestion and decreases net use of glucose by portal-drained viscera slightly, but increases in glucose absorption by portal-drained viscera never account fully for increases in starch disappearance from the small intestine and occur at the expense of VFA absorption. For cows in positive energy balance, greater glucose availability increases tissue energy balance and glucose oxidation, but has little effect on milk or milk protein yield. Similarly, chronic increases in propionate absorption have little effect on milk or milk protein yield. In contrast, casein infusion into the small intestine consistently increases milk and milk protein yield, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. There are few data describing the absorption and metabolism of AA by splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows, but, as for glucose and VFA, utilization of many AA by portal-drained viscera is substantial. In addition, the contribution of peptides to AA absorption and transport is uncertain and must be clarified. Therefore, measurements of nutrient disappearance from the lumen of the gut cannot be equated with nutrient appearance in the portal vein. Data describing metabolism of nutrients by portal-drained viscera and liver of high yielding dairy cows are needed to improve feeding standards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2787-2808
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume77
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

Keywords

  • Bovidae
  • MDV
  • ME
  • PDV
  • VA
  • gastrointestinal tract
  • intermediary metabolism
  • mesenteric-drained viscera
  • metabolizable energy
  • nutrient absorption
  • portal-drained viscera
  • venous-arterial concentration difference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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