Academic freedom protections in national and international law

Neal H. Hutchens, Macey L. Edmondson, Frank J. Fernandez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Academic freedom provides the professoriate with independence to carry out intellectual responsibilities. Political systems treat academic values differently and the same protections are not afforded globally. This entry explores the history of academic freedom and how it is viewed and protected worldwide. Of late, governmental protections have been precarious in some nations and scholars have been reprimanded in countries that encroach onto the autonomy of higher education.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Education
Subtitle of host publicationFourth Edition
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9780128186299
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Academic freedom
  • Faculty
  • First amendment
  • Intellectual independence
  • Tenure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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