Activity and movements of reintroduced elk in Southeastern Kentucky

Michael W. Wichrowski, David S. Maehr, Jeffery L. Larkin, John J. Cox, Mattias P.O. Olsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


We assessed daily and seasonal activity and movements of reintroduced elk in eastern Kentucky from March 1999 to November 2000. Elk activity was determined by monitoring radio-transmitter pulse rate changes, and movements were calculated using hourly ground locations. A total of 1469 activity bouts and 1441 locations were collected on 38 and 32 radio-collared elk, respectively. Elk exhibited a tri-modal activity pattern with peaks near dawn, dusk, and midnight. Activity did not differ between seasons, although it was influenced by gender and time of day. Peak movements corresponded with peaks in activity at dawn and dusk, and increased from spring to winter. Elk were more gregarious and visible during the fall and winter, which increased their susceptibility to human disturbance and caused longer movements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)365-374
Number of pages10
JournalSoutheastern Naturalist
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics


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