Acute Behavioral Effects of Triazolam and Caffeine, Alone and in Combination, in Humans

Craig R. Rush, Stephen T. Higgins, John R. Hughes, Warren K. Bickel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The acute behavioral effects of triazolam (0, 0.375, and 0.75 mg/70 kg) and caffeine (0, 250, and 500 mg/70 kg), alone and in combination, were assessed in 9 male volunteers. Ss received all possible dose combinations according to a Latin square design. Triazolam administered alone dose dependently disrupted learning and performance on the Repeated Acquisition and Performance procedure and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and increased S ratings of sedation. Caffeine administered alone did not significantly affect learning or performance measures, but it did dose dependently increase S ratings of drug strength. Caffeine significantly attenuated triazolam-induced decrements in learning and performance. Consistent with effects on learning and performance, caffeine offset triazolam-induced increases in S ratings of sedation. Combining caffeine and triazolam did not significantly alter increases in S ratings of drug strength observed with caffeine alone. These effects are qualitatively similar to those observed with other benzodiazepines (e.g., lorazepam) and document a high degree of consistency in the behavioral pharmacology of benzodiazepine-caffeine combinations in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-222
Number of pages12
JournalExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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