Acute respiratory distress syndrome after SARS-CoV-2 infection on young adult population: International observational federated study based on electronic health records through the 4CE consortium

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Abstract

Purpose In young adults (18 to 49 years old), investigation of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been limited. We evaluated the risk factors and outcomes of ARDS following infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a young adult population. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1st, 2020 and February 28th, 2021 using patient-level electronic health records (EHR), across 241 United States hospitals and 43 European hospitals participating in the Consortium for Clinical Characterization of COVID-19 by EHR (4CE). To identify the risk factors associated with ARDS, we compared young patients with and without ARDS through a federated analysis. We further compared the outcomes between young and old patients with ARDS. Results Among the 75,377 hospitalized patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR, 1001 young adults presented with ARDS (7.8% of young hospitalized adults). Their mortality rate at 90 days was 16.2% and they presented with a similar complication rate for infection than older adults with ARDS. Peptic ulcer disease, paralysis, obesity, congestive heart failure, valvular disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and liver disease were associated with a higher risk of ARDS. We described a high prevalence of obesity (53%), hypertension (38%-although not significantly associated with ARDS), and diabetes (32%). Conclusion Trough an innovative method, a large international cohort study of young adults developing ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 infection has been gather. It demonstrated the poor outcomes of this population and associated risk factor.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0266985
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume18
Issue number1 January
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
KC is supported by VA MVP000 and CIPHER. DAH is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) UL1TR002240. YL is supported by NIH/NCATS U01TR003528 and NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) 1R01LM013337. MM is supported by Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) UL1 TR001857. DLM is supported by NIH/NCATS CTSA UL1-TR001878 (University of Pennsylvania). LPP is supported by CTSA Award UL1TR002366. SV is supported by NIH/NLM R01LM012095 and NIH/ NCATS UL1TR001857. GMW is supported by NIH/ NCATS UL1TR002541, NIH/NCATS UL1TR000005, NIH/NLM R01LM013345, and NIH National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) 3U01HG008685-05S2. ZX is supported by NIH National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) R01NS098023. Funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2023 Moal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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