Adderall® produces increased striatal dopamine release and a prolonged time course compared to amphetamine isomers

B. Matthew Joyce, Paul E.A. Glaser, Greg A. Gerhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Rationale: Adderall® is currently used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and is composed of a novel mixture of approximately 24% l-amphetamine and 76% d-amphetamine salts. There are, however, no investigations of the pharmacological effects of this combination in vivo. Objectives: The technique of high-speed chronoamperometry using Nafion®-coated single carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used to study amphetamine-evoked dopamine (DA) release produced by Adderall®, d-amphetamine, or d,l-amphetamine in the striatum of anesthetized male Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The amphetamine solutions were locally applied from micropipettes by pressure ejection. Results: Local applications of Adderall® resulted in significantly greater DA release signal amplitudes with prolonged time course of dopamine release and re-uptake as compared to d-amphetamine and d,l-amphetamine. Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that the combination of amphetamine enantiomers and salts in Adderall® has effects on DA release, which result in increased and prolonged DA release, compared to d- and d,l-amphetamine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-677
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments USPHS grants DA14944, MH01245, DA017186, NSF DBI-9987807, and MH-70840. The authors would like to thank Theresa Currier Thomas, Sonia Fullwood, and Nichole Hines for their assistance with these experiments. These experiments comply with all laws within the United States of America.


  • Adderall®
  • Amphetamines
  • Dopamine
  • Psychostimulants
  • Striatum
  • Voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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