Adjunctive behavior induced by different conditions of wheel running

M. J. Wayner, G. Singer, K. Cimino, J. Stein, L. Dwoskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Adjunctive behaviors such as licking, nose poking, rearing, grooming and locomotion induced by intermittent wheel running were observed in 12 female hooded rats. Animals were studied both under scheduled and free wheel conditions. Although all of the observed behaviors were emitted at high frequencies during scheduled wheel turning activity, only revolutions and rearings-locomotion increased significantly when compared to the free wheel condition when animals scheduled themselves. These data demonstrate again that adjunctive behavior can be produced in animals which are not deprived of food or water and support an explanation in terms of a nonspecific increase in motor excitability induced by the intermittance of schedule associated stimulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-510
Number of pages4
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1975

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Animals were tested in an automatically programmable standard 14in. dia. Wahmann Co. LC-34 activity wheel \[1\]. A 5 cm dia. window covered with a wire grid, 14 mm squares, was placed over the entrance to the wheel. Water was available during the test session from a ball point stainless steel drinking spout which protruded 1 cm through the grid window 3 cm above the running surface of the wheel. A contact lickometer was attached to both the drinking spout and the wire grid. Contacts with the drinking spout and the wire grid, licks-pokes, as well as revolutions of the wheel were recorded by counters. A brake mounted colinearly with the shaft of the wheel permitted the wheel to be free or locked for various lengths of time. The duration of the free and locked periods was controlled by two independent timers. The wheel was enclosed in a box constructed of acoustical ceiling tile. A transparent Plexiglas window in one side of the box allowed direct observation of the animal. Shaded fluorescent lights z This research was supported by NSF Grant GB-41297 and NIMH Grant 15473 and Training Grant MH-06969. We would like to express our appreciation to Prof. George Collier for the use of a programmable activity wheel. This research was carried out while G. Singer was an NSF Visiting Senior Foreign Research Fellow. Reprint requests to M. J. Wayner, Brain Research Laboratory, 601 University Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13210 U.S.A.


  • Adjunctive behavior
  • Motor activity
  • Motor excitability
  • Schedule induced behavior
  • Wheel running

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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