Adolescents' self-defined tobacco use status, marijuana use, and tobacco dependence

Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Chris G. Richardson, Pamela A. Ratner, Joy L. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Aims: To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data. Participants: Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a school based survey conducted in 2004. Measures: Responses to demographic, current smoking, alcohol use, self-defined tobacco and marijuana use status questions, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, modified-Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (M-FTQ), and the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS) were obtained. Findings: Marijuana users were 5.9 times more likely to be current tobacco smokers and reported higher levels of perceived addiction to tobacco as compared with marijuana non-users. After controlling for demographics, life-time tobacco use, and alcohol use, marijuana use was associated with the nicotine dependent and sensory dimensions of tobacco dependence. Conclusions: Adolescents who concurrently use tobacco and marijuana may be more tobacco dependent than are marijuana non-users. Concurrent use of marijuana may be a factor associated with tobacco dependence among a sub-group of concomitant drug-using adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1491-1499
Number of pages9
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant (grant #62980). Dr. C.T.C. Okoli was supported by a CIHR Strategic Training Program in Tobacco Research (STPTR) Post-doctoral Fellowship and a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR) NEXUS Research Unit Traineeship. Dr. C. G. Richardson was supported by a Scholar Award from the Michael Smith Foundation and NEXUS Post-doctoral Fellowships. Dr. J. L. Johnson was supported by a CIHR Investigator Award. Dr. P. A. Ratner is a Senior Scholar funded by the MSFHR.


  • Adolescents
  • Marijuana use
  • Tobacco dependence
  • Tobacco use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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