Aggregated Generic Load Curve for Residential Electric Water Heaters

Huangjie Gong, Oluwaseun M. Akeyo, Tim Rooney, Brian Branecky, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Advanced control techniques may be used to regulate the operation of residential appliances to establish a virtual power plant. The electric water heater may be regarded as a 'uni-directional battery' and a major component of a hybrid residential energy storage system. One of the main constraints of implementing demand response with EWH relates to the unpredictable customer behavior, which influences the domestic water tank temperature as well as the EWH operation cycle. This study analyzes the operation of multiple water heaters and develops an aggregated generic water heater load curve for the average residential customer based on experimental data retrieved from the A.O. Smith Corporation. An equivalent thermal model capable of capturing the typical customer behavior and estimating the per unit hot water usage was developed. The proposed aggregated generic EWH load curve was validated through an example demand response program, in which the morning peak demand is shed in order to store the surplus PV power at midday in the EWH. Based on the representative hot water draw profile and the electric power profile, the change in average tank temperature was estimated and maintained within the customer acceptable range.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2021
ISBN (Electronic)9781665405072
StatePublished - 2021
Event2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2021 - Washington, United States
Duration: Jul 26 2021Jul 29 2021

Publication series

NameIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting
ISSN (Print)1944-9925
ISSN (Electronic)1944-9933


Conference2021 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 IEEE.


  • Demand Response (DR)
  • Electric Water Heater (EWH)
  • Generic Curve
  • Smart Grid
  • Smart Home
  • Virtual Power Plant (VPP)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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