To explore the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanisms of action of a new class of antiatherosclerotic drugs, AGI-1067 [mono[4-[[1-[[3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]thio]-1- methylethyl]thio]-2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl] ester] (butanedioc acid) was tested in several animal models of atherosclerosis. AGI-1067, a novel phenolic antioxidant, was well tolerated in a 1-year study in hypercholesterolemic cynomolgus monkeys. It lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) by 41 and 90% at oral doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg, respectively and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) by 107% at the higher dose. In contrast, another phenolic antioxidant, probucol, had a modest LDLc-lowering effect (15% at 250 mg/kg) while decreasing HDLc (37% at 150 mg/kg). Histopathology of the aortas and coronary arteries revealed no atherosclerosis in the AG1-1067 (150 mg/kg) group and minimal-to-moderate atherosclerosis in the vehicle and probucol (150 mg/kg) groups. AGI-1067 also inhibited atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/-) mice and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/-) mice even in the absence of a lipid-lowering effect. In LDLr -/- mice, AGI-1067 reduced aortic atherosclerosis by 49%. In ApoE -/- mice, AGI-1067 reduced atherosclerosis by 25, 41, and 49% in the arch, thoracic, and abdominal regions of the aorta. AGI-1067 also reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA levels in lungs of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mice. At the cellular level, AGI-1067 inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible expression of VCAM-1, MCP-1, and E-selectin in human aortic endothelial cells (IC50 values = 6, 10, and 25 μM, respectively). These data show that AGI-1067 can inhibit atherosclerosis not only via its lipid-lowering effects but also by having direct anti-inflammatory effects on the vessel wall and suggest that it may be a novel therapeutic agent for coronary artery disease.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine