Alcohol and other pharmacologically similar sedatives (i.e., GABA A positive allosteric modulators or PAMs) impair the encoding of new episodic memories but retroactively facilitate the consolidation of recently encoded memories. These effects are consistent for recollection (i.e., the retrieval of details) but some mixed results have been reported for familiarity (i.e., a feeling of knowing a stimulus was presented). Here, with dual-process models, we reanalyzed prior work testing the effects of GABA A PAMs at encoding or consolidation. Contrary to previous conclusions, we show that GABA A PAMs at encoding consistently impair both recollection and familiarity when an independence correction is applied to familiarity-based responses. These findings were further confirmed and extended in a dual-process signal detection analysis of a recent study on the effects of alcohol during encoding or consolidation: Alcohol at encoding impaired both recollection and familiarity, whereas alcohol at consolidation enhanced both recollection and familiarity. These findings speak to the ability of alcohol and other GABA A PAMs to induce ‘blackouts,’ highlighting the importance of dual-process approaches when analyzing drug manipulations at different phases of episodic memory.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Oct 2 2018|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse [DA002812,DA031796,F32 DA033756];
This work was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse under Grants DA002812 (HdW), DA031796 (HdW and DAG), and F32 DA033756 (JW).
© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
- episodic memory
- retrograde facilitation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience