Aligned TiO 2 nanotube arrays as durable lithium-ion battery negative electrodes

Qing Liu Wu, Juchuan Li, Rutooj D. Deshpande, Navaladian Subramanian, Stephen E. Rankin, Fuqian Yang, Yang Tse Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Scopus citations


Vertically aligned amorphous titania (TiO 2) nanotubes are produced by anodizing Ti foils at various applied potentials in a neutral electrolyte solution containing fluoride ions. Pore size and wall thickness are tuned in the range from 30 to 70 nm and 17 to 35 nm, respectively, by adjusting the applied potential, in addition to tuning the tube length from 355 to 550 nm. Utilizing all of these films as negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries delivers stable capacities of 130-230 mAh g -1 and 520-880 mAh cm -3 up to 200 cycles. Microstructural analysis shows that there is no structural change or mechanical degradation in the active material, and the amorphous active material maintains good contact with the substrate/current collector. A continuum elasticity model for the tubular geometry is presented to understand the diffusion-induced stresses, fracture tendency, and stability in TiO 2 nanotubes. Modeling results indicate that the fracture tendencies of nanotubes with the dimensions in this work are very small; stable reversible capacity retention results from the high ratio of inner to outer diameter of the tubes. In other words, tubes with thinner walls more easily accommodate expansion or contraction during the lithiation/delithiation process. A guideline for designing lithium-ion battery nanotube electrodes is given such that under specific conditions the fracture tendency is small and volumetric charge density is high.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18669-18677
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number35
StatePublished - Sep 6 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Energy (all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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