Amniotic Fluid Embolism

John M. Kissko, Robert Gaiser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and lethal clinical syndrome. The classic triad of AFE is cardiovascular collapse, respiratory distress, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The understanding of its pathophysiology has changed since it was first described more than 85years ago, and is now better described as an anaphylactoid reaction of pregnancy. Despite continued investigation into new methods of diagnosis, such as transesophageal echocardiography and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, and treatment modalities including intralipid and recombinant factor VIIa, AFE remains one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)609-621
Number of pages13
JournalAnesthesiology Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2013


  • Amniotic fluid embolism
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
  • Right heart failure
  • Transesophageal echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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