Vaccination with Aβ1-42 and treatment with NCX-2216, a novel nitric oxide releasing flurbiprofen derivative, have each been shown separately to reduce amyloid deposition in transgenic mice and have been suggested as potential therapies for Alzheimer's disease. In the current study we treated doubly transgenic amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP+PS1) mice with Aβ1-42 vaccination, NCX-2216 or both drugs simultaneously for 9 months. We found that all treatments reduced amyloid deposition, both compact and diffuse, to the same extent while only vaccinated animals, with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment, showed increased microglial activation associated with the remaining amyloid deposits. We also found that active Aβ vaccination resulted in significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy and associated microhemorrhages, while NCX-2216 did not, in spite of similar reductions in parenchymal amyloid. Co-administration of NCX-2216 did not attenuate this effect of the vaccine. This is the first report showing that active immunization can result in increased vascular amyloid and microhemorrhage, as has been observed with passive immunization. Co-administration of an NSAID agent with Aβ vaccination does not substantially modify the effects of Aβ immunotherapy. The difference between these treatments with respect to vascular amyloid development may reflect the clearance-promoting actions of the vaccine as opposed to the production-modifying effects proposed for flurbiprofen.
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Feb 9 2007|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by NIH grants AG 15490 and AG 18478. D.G.M. also receives salary support from AG25711. Donna M. Wilcock was the Benjamin Scholar for Alzheimer’s Research. The authors wish to thank Karen Ashe and Karen Duff for early access to the transgenic mice used in this study. We thank Ennio Ongini and Nicox, S.A. for donating the NCX-2216 for our research. We also thank Paul E. Gottschall for providing us with the polyclonal anti-Aβ antibody for immunohistochemistry.
- Alzheimer's disease
- cerebral amyloid angiopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuroscience (all)