An Experimental Test of the Relationship between Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Use and Alcohol Consumption

Alexandra R. Hershberger, Amanda Studebaker, Zachary T. Whitt, Mark Fillmore, Christopher W. Kahler, Melissa A. Cyders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Increasing research shows that the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) is associated with a higher rate and quantity of alcohol consumption. Methods: The present study used a 2-session, within-subjects design to experimentally examine the relationship between ENDS use and laboratory ad libitum alcohol consumption. A total of N = 31 (mean age = 28.71, SD = 11.17; 45.2% women; 54.8% White/Caucasian) healthy adults from the community who use ENDS and endorsed liking beer completed the study, which included a beer consumption taste-test task that assessed the volume of beer consumed by the participants across 2 counterbalanced sessions: 1 in which concurrent ENDS use was allowed and 1 in which it was not. All analyses controlled for age, race, and gender. Results: The effect of ENDS condition on the volume of beer consumed was not statistically significant, F(1, 30) = 0.03, p = 0.86). Results of linear mixed modeling showed that ENDS puffs were significantly related to alcohol sips (estimate = 0.23, SE = 0.07, p = 0.002) across the ad libitum session. Conclusions: Overall, ENDS use did not increase alcohol consumption; however, the data suggest that ENDS puffs might act as a prime for beer sips or that these 2 behaviors are linked through habit. Future studies should more fully measure and compare global and event-level data on ENDS and alcohol use as they might show disparate patterns of relationships.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)808-818
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the Research Society on Alcoholism


  • Ad Libitum
  • Alcohol
  • ENDS
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery System

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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