An Intelligent Terminal Based Privacy-Preserving Multi-Modal Implicit Authentication Protocol for Internet of Connected Vehicles

Fushan Wei, Sherali Zeadally, Pandi Vijayakumar, Neeraj Kumar, Debiao He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The Internet of connected Vehicles (IOV) can collect, process, compute and release the information of intelligent transportation systems. IOV is an integrated service system that can support the applications for automatic driving, intelligent transport and information services. As the number of incidents on IOV has been on the rise in the past few years, IOV security is becoming increasingly important in the IOV architecture. One of the most notable risks of IOV faces is intelligent terminal security. The vehicle's intelligent terminal can be used to launch for further attacks on the on-board operating system to penetrate into the internal network of connected vehicle, and consequently threaten the safety of the vehicle. Thus, it is of paramount importance that we protect the security of the intelligent terminal. We propose two intelligent terminal based privacy-preserving multi-modal implicit authentication protocols to protect the security of the intelligent terminal in IOV. The proposed protocols use the password and the vehicle owner's behavior features as the authentication factors to protect the security of the intelligent terminal. Since the vehicle owner's behavior features are sensitive and the privacy information of the user must be protected, we also consider the privacy protection of the behavior features. Our protocols do not reveal any information about the vehicle owner's behavior features to the authentication server and the adversary except the ciphertext size of the feature vector. We analyze the security of our proposed protocol and compare them with other related protocols in terms of computation and communications costs. Our results demonstrate that our proposed protocols yield better security and efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9134389
Pages (from-to)3939-3951
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received October 30, 2019; revised April 6, 2020; accepted May 8, 2020. Date of publication July 7, 2020; date of current version July 12, 2021. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61772548, Grant 61672413, Grant 61872449, Grant 61972294, and Grant 61932016, and in part by the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory under Grant KJ-17-001. The Associate Editor for this article was S. Mumtaz. (Corresponding author: Neeraj Kumar.) Fushan Wei is with the Henan Key Laboratory of Network Cryptography Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China, and also with the China State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced Computing, Zhengzhou 450001, China (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 2000-2011 IEEE.


  • Authentication
  • connected vehicles
  • intelligent terminal
  • Internet of Vehicles
  • privacy
  • protocol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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