Analysis of burr formation in finish machining of nickel-based superalloy with worn tools using micro-scale in-situ techniques

Hamzah Zannoun, Julius Schoop

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The formation of burrs is among the most significant factors affecting quality and productivity in machining. Burrs are a negative byproduct of machining processes that are difficult to avoid because of a limited understanding of the complex burr formation mechanisms in relation to cutting conditions, including both process parameters and tool condition. Thus, the objective of this work was to characterize burr formation under finish machining conditions via a high-speed, high-resolution in-situ experimental method. Various parameters pertaining to burr geometry such as height, thickness, and initial negative shear angle were measured both during and after cutting. Results showed that varying the conditions of uncut chip thickness, tool-wear, and cutting speed all have a significant effect on burr formation, although certain burr metrics were found to be insensitive with respect to different process conditions because the difference was statistically insignificant. This study provides new insights into the relationships between the workpiece material's microstructure, machining parameters, and tool condition on both crack formation and propagation/plasticity during burr formation. Using digital image correlation (DIC) and a physics-based process model not previously utilized for burr formation analysis, the displacement and corresponding flow stress were calculated at the exit burr root location. This novel semi-analytical approach revealed that the normalized stress at the exit burr root was approximately equal to the flow stress for a variety of different conditions, indicating the potential for model-based prediction of burr formation mechanics. Finally, this study investigates factors that influence fracture evolution during exit burr formation. It was found that negative exit burrs are a direct result of high strain rate and high uncut chip thickness, which was expected, but also a microstructural size effect and a tool-wear effect, neither of which have been previously reported. By harnessing ultra-high-speed imaging and advanced optical microscopy techniques, this manuscript deals with the fundamentals of burr formation, including new insights into material response at the grain-scale to the loads imposed with both sharp and worn tools.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104030
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation , grant number 2143806 , project title “CAREER: Thermomechanical Response and Fatigue Performance of Surface Layers Engineered by Finish Machining: In-situ Characterization and Digital Process Twin”.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors


  • Burr formation
  • Digital image correlation (DIC)
  • In-situ characterization
  • Inconel 718
  • Machining
  • Tool-wear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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