Anisotropic ductile fracture of a stainless steel under biaxial loading: Experiments and predictions

Madhav Baral, Peter W. Ripley, Yanshan Lou, Yannis P. Korkolis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The anisotropic ductile fracture behavior of a stainless steel is investigated using a combination of experiments and analysis. The material is SS-304L, an austenitic, low-carbon stainless steel, received in the form of tubes of 2.38 mm dia. and 0.15 mm thickness. The tubes are inflated under volume control in a custom apparatus. At the same time, the axial force on the tubes is kept proportional to the pressure induced by the inflation. This leads to quasi-proportional stress paths in the meridional-hoop engineering stress space. A total of 15 discrete paths are successfully tested. Stereo-type Digital Image Correlation is used to measure the strains. In every case, the tubes develop a series of instabilities before bursting. The failure is oriented along the meridional or the hoop direction of the tube, depending on which stress is greater. A mild plastic anisotropy is detected in these experiments. Hence these results are then used for calibrating the anisotropic yield criterion Yld2004-3D. This is introduced in a finite element model of the experiments, which includes a thickness imperfection designed to capture the two failure orientations observed in the experiments. The numerical model using the Yld2004-3D criterion reproduces the experiments well, e.g., it captures the experimental stress-strain and induced strain paths better than von Mises. It is then used to probe the conditions at the onset of fracture (hybrid method). It is found that most paths lead to essentially proportional loading during deformation. A significant anisotropy in the fracture behavior is detected, with the meridional-stress-dominated paths being able to develop much higher strains than the hoop-dominated ones. These results are then captured by the DF2016 ductile fracture criterion, modified to use the anisotropic yield criterion Yld91. The proposed criterion is flexible enough to represent the fracture anisotropy very well, without being unnecessarily complex. The fracture forming limit curve (i.e., the fracture envelope in strain space) predicted by the DF2016/Yld91 model is also found to be very close to the experiments. The results and findings of this work help establish a framework to reliably design components and processes when significant fracture anisotropy is expected.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103927
JournalInternational Journal of Plasticity
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier Ltd


  • Anisotropic fracture
  • Multiaxial loading
  • Plastic anisotropy
  • Rupture
  • Stainless steel
  • Thin-walled tube

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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