APOLLOCAR3D: A large 3D car instance understanding benchmark for autonomous driving

Xibin Song, Peng Wang, Dingfu Zhou, Rui Zhu, Chenye Guan, Yuchao Dai, Hao Su, Hongdong Li, Ruigang Yang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

113 Scopus citations

Abstract

Autonomous driving has attracted remarkable attention from both industry and academia. An important task is to estimate 3D properties (e.g. translation, rotation and shape) of a moving or parked vehicle on the road. This task, while critical, is still under-researched in the computer vision community-partially owing to the lack of large scale and fully-annotated 3D car database suitable for autonomous driving research. In this paper, we contribute the first large scale database suitable for 3D car instance understanding-ApolloCar3D. The dataset contains 5,277 driving images and over 60K car instances, where each car is fitted with an industry-grade 3D CAD model with absolute model size and semantically labelled keypoints. This dataset is above 20× larger than PASCAL3D+ and KITTI, the current state-of-the-art. To enable efficient labelling in 3D, we build a pipeline by considering 2D-3D keypoint correspondences for a single instance and 3D relationship among multiple instances. Equipped with such dataset, we build various baseline algorithms with the state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks. Specifically, we first segment each car with a pre-trained Mask R-CNN, and then regress towards its 3D pose and shape based on a deformable 3D car model with or without using semantic keypoints. We show that using keypoints significantly improves fitting performance. Finally, we develop a new 3D metric jointly considering 3D pose and 3D shape, allowing for comprehensive evaluation and ablation study.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - 2019 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR 2019
Pages5447-5457
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781728132938
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Event32nd IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR 2019 - Long Beach, United States
Duration: Jun 16 2019Jun 20 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Volume2019-June
ISSN (Print)1063-6919

Conference

Conference32nd IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR 2019
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityLong Beach
Period6/16/196/20/19

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 IEEE.

Keywords

  • 3D from Single Image
  • Datasets and Evaluation
  • Robotics + Driving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

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