Are common symbiosis genes required for endophytic rice-rhizobial interactions?

Caiyan Chen, Hongyan Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Legume plants are able to establish root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. Recent studies revealed that the root nodule symbiosis has co-opted the signaling pathway that mediates the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis that occurs in most land plants. Despite being unable to induce nodulation, rhizobia have been shown to be able to infect and colonize the roots of non-legumes such as rice. One fascinating question is whether establishment of such associations requires the common symbiosis (Sym) genes that are essential for infection of plant cells by mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia in legumes. Here, we demonstrated that the common Sym genes are not required for endophytic colonization of rice roots by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere25453
JournalPlant Signaling and Behavior
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Barry G. Rolfe, Australian National University, for providing the GFP-tagged Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain R4. This work was supported by the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation and by the US. National Science Foundation (grant no. IOS 0640197 to HZ).


  • Common symbiosis genes
  • Legume
  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Rhizobia
  • Rice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science


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