Assessment of spray envelope using droplet breakup regime and mechanisms

A. A. Salaimeh, A. Adornato, N. K. Akafuah, K. Saito

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Atomizers used in practical applications such as fuel injectors and paint applicators do not produce sprays of uniform droplet size. Instead, the spray is a collection of droplets that encompass a range of different sizes. During the spray flight from the nozzle to the target droplets are broken at various regimes: primary and secondary before reaching a coalescence stage. In the first two stages the ligaments are broken due to competing mechanisms of shear or inertia, surface tension, and viscous forces. The ratio of surface tension to shear or inertial forces is defined as the non-dimensional Weber number. Increasing the Weber number will result to change in the mechanism of droplet formation ranging from stable without breakup, to bag breakup, sheet striping as the Weber number increases. In this paper the investigators studied secondary breakup and the percentage of the various breakup mechanisms as a function of the location between the nozzle and the target. The team used laser diffraction to measure droplet size distribution along the center of the spray envelope. It was found that during the first 20 cm from the nozzle various breakup mechanisms take place before all droplets become stable and coalescence starts. The interaction between the liquid and gas is affected by the pressure of the gas and liquid flow.

Original languageEnglish
StatePublished - 2015
Event13th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ICLASS 2015 - Tainan, Taiwan, Province of China
Duration: Aug 23 2015Aug 27 2015


Conference13th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, ICLASS 2015
Country/TerritoryTaiwan, Province of China

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was performed with the support of IR4TD internal funding, the research team would like to thank the Kentucky young researchers program and the Math Science and Technology Center at Paul Laurence Dunbar high school. Also the team would like to thank Monon Rahman and Eric Lowry for assisting with the experimental setup and data collection.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems. All rights reserved.


  • Atomization
  • Drop size
  • Laser diffraction
  • Spray
  • Weber number

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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