Importance: Evidence of the association between income fluctuation and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is scarce. Objective: To investigate whether sustained low or high income and income changes are associated with incidence of T2D. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based cohort study, more than 7.8 million adults without T2D aged 30 to 64 years from a nationally representative sample from the Korean Health Insurance Service database were enrolled in 2012 and followed up to 2019 (median follow-up, 6.3 years [IQR, 6.1-6.6 years]). Exposures: Twenty quantiles of monthly health insurance premiums determined income levels. Income quartiles were annually analyzed from 2008 to 2012. Beneficiaries of the Medical Aid Program were regarded as those with very low income. A decrease in income was indicated as a reduction of 25% or more in income compared with income in the previous year. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incident T2D based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes E11 to E14, 1 or more claims of antidiabetic medication, or a fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dL or higher. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of low- or high-income status and income changes with incidence of T2D. Results: Of 7 821 227 participants (mean [SD] age, 46.4 [9.3] years; 54.9% men), 359 931 (4.6%) developed T2D at least 1 year after enrollment. Individuals who repeatedly experienced low and very low income for 5 years showed 22% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22 [95% CI, 1.21-1.23]) and 57% (1.57 [95% CI, 1.53-1.62]) higher T2D risk compared with those who never experienced low and very low income, respectively. In contrast, individuals who were repeatedly in high-income quartiles showed lower T2D risk compared with those who never experienced high income (HR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.85-0.86]). The number of income decreases was associated with elevated T2D risk (≥2 vs 0 income decreases: HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.06-1.11]; P < .001 for trend). When income quartile status was compared between 2008 and 2012, individuals who experienced an income increase had lowered T2D risk, while those who experienced an income decrease had elevated T2D risk in each income quartile group. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that individuals who experienced sustained low-income status or an income decrease had elevated T2D risk, while those who had sustained high-income status or an income increase had lowered T2D risk.
|Journal||JAMA network open|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2023|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (all)