Associations between potential inflammatory properties of the diet and frequency, duration, and severity of migraine headaches: a cross-sectional study

Seyed Mojtaba Ghoreishy, Gholamreza Askari, Hamed Mohammadi, Marilyn S Campbell, Fariborz Khorvash, Arman Arab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Despite a large body of literature on the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and various chronic diseases, limited knowledge is available regarding the association between DII and migraine. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between the DII and migraine characteristics, including duration, frequency, and severity of migraine headaches, Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), and serum levels of nitric oxide (NO). This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2019 to June 2020 among 262 patients (38 men and 224 women; 20-50 years). A 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was gathered to evaluate dietary intake, and subsequently, an energy-adjusted DII score was calculated. After controlling for potential confounders, an increase of 3.48 in headache frequency was observed when the DII score increased from - 4.04 to - 1.83 (β = 3.48; 95% CI 1.43, 5.54). In the crude model, headache duration tended to be inversely associated with DII in the subjects with the pro-inflammatory diet compared to those with the anti-inflammatory diet (β = - 0.22; 95% CI - 0.46, 0.02). After adjustment for confounders, those with the highest DII values were at a higher risk of severe headaches than those with the lowest values (OR = 2.25; 95% CI 1.17, 4.32). No other significant results were found in terms of the association between DII and HIT-6 or serum NO levels. We found evidence suggesting that higher adherence to a diet with anti-inflammatory properties was significantly and inversely related to headache frequency. Furthermore, our results suggest that the DII score is substantially related to migraine severity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2878
JournalScientific Reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 21 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet/statistics & numerical data
  • Eating/physiology
  • Feeding Behavior/physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Migraine Disorders/blood
  • Nitric Oxide/blood
  • Patient Acuity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult

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