Augmented reality in urban places: Contested content and the duplicity of code

Mark Graham, Matthew Zook, Andrew Boulton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Through detailed explorations of 'augmented realities', this chapter provides a broad overview of not only the ways that those augmented realities matter but also the complex and often duplicitous manner that code and content can congeal in experiences of augmented places. Specifically, it demonstrates there are four key ways in which power is manifested in augmented realities: two performed largely by social actors - distributed power and communication power - and two enacted primarily via software - code power and timeless power. All spatial representations are both the products and producers of specific configurations of power relations, and thus a key question is whether the ways power in augmented reality is constructed and exercised is novel. The chapter concludes by calling for redoubled attention to both the layering of content and the duplicity and ephemerality of code in shaping the uneven and power-laden practices of representations and the experiences of place augmentations in urban places.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMachine Learning and the City
Subtitle of host publicationApplications in Architecture and Urban Design
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781119815075
StatePublished - May 27 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Augmented reality
  • Code power
  • Communication power
  • Distributed power
  • Social actors
  • Timeless power
  • Urban places

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (all)
  • Arts and Humanities (all)


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