Automation and integration of a novel restricted single-isocenter stereotactic body radiotherapy (a-RESIST) method for synchronous two lung lesions

Lana Sanford Critchfield, Justin Visak, Mark E. Bernard, Marcus E. Randall, Ronald C. McGarry, Damodar Pokhrel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Synchronous treatment of two lung lesions using a single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plan can decrease treatment time and reduce the impact of intrafraction motion. However, alignment of both lesions on a single cone beam CT (CBCT) can prove difficult and may lead to setup errors and unacceptable target coverage loss. A Restricted Single-Isocenter Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (RESIST) method was created to minimize setup uncertainties and provide treatment delivery flexibility. RESIST utilizes a single-isocenter placed at patient’s midline and allows both lesions to be planned separately but treated in the same session. Herein is described a process of automation of this novel RESIST method. Automation of RESIST significantly reduced treatment planning time while maintaining the benefits of RESIST. To demonstrate feasibility, ten patients with two lung lesions previously treated with a single-isocenter clinical VMAT plan were replanned manually with RESIST (m-RESIST) and with automated RESIST (a-RESIST). a-RESIST method automatically sets isocenter, creates beam geometry, chooses appropriate dose calculation algorithms, and performs VMAT optimization using an in-house trained knowledge-based planning model for lung SBRT. Both m-RESIST and a-RESIST showed lower dose to normal tissues compared to manually planned clinical VMAT although a-RESIST provided slightly inferior, but still clinically acceptable, dose conformity and gradient indices. However, a-RESIST significantly reduced the treatment planning time to less than 20 min and provided a higher dose to the lung tumors. The a-RESIST method provides guidance for inexperienced planners by standardizing beam geometry and plan optimization using DVH estimates. It produces clinically acceptable two lesions VMAT lung SBRT plans efficiently. We have further validated a-RESIST on phantom measurement and independent pretreatment dose verification of another four selected 2-lesions lung SBRT patients and implemented clinically. Further development of a-RESIST for more than two lung lesions and refining this approach for extracranial oligometastastic abdominal/pelvic SBRT, including development of automated simulated collision detection algorithm, merits future investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-65
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine


  • automation
  • lung SBRT
  • single-isocenter VMAT
  • synchronous multiple lesions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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