Baseline preseason ImPACT® testing in Mandarin with adolescent student-athletes in the United States

Grant L. Iverson, Justin E. Karr, Yue Hong, Chi Cheng Yang, Bruce Maxwell, Paul D. Berkner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Researchers have examined differences on ImPACT® in baseline symptom reporting and neurocognitive performances based on the language of administration and racial/ethnic identity. This is the first study to examine differences between student-athletes tested in Mandarin versus English on ImPACT® during preseason baseline assessments conducted in high schools in the United States. Participants included 252 adolescent student-athletes who completed ImPACT® testing in the state of Maine in Mandarin and 252 participants who completed testing in English, matched on age, gender, and health and academic history. Participants were compared on neurocognitive composite scores and symptom ratings. Boys tested in Mandarin, but not girls, had modestly better neurocognitive performance on one of four composite scores (i.e., Visual Motor Speed, p <.001, d =.45). Although language groups did not differ in total symptom severity, boys tested in Mandarin endorsed multiple physical symptoms at higher rates than boys tested in English. These results suggest that the current ImPACT® neurocognitive normative data are reasonably appropriate for use with adolescents evaluated in Mandarin. There were some differences in the reporting of physical symptoms, with greater rates of symptom endorsement by boys tested in Mandarin than boys tested in English; but overall symptom severity ratings were comparable between the language groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-454
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Child
Volume11
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The data were gathered as part of the Maine Concussion Management Initiative (MCMI) under the direction of the principal investigator Dr. Paul Berkner. The authors thank the Maine Athletic Trainers Association for their collaboration with the MCMI. Dr. Grant Iverson acknowledges unrestricted philanthropic support from the Mooney-Reed Charitable Foundation, National Rugby League, ImPACT® Applications, Inc., and the Spaulding Research Institute.

Funding Information:
Dr. Grant Iverson has been reimbursed by the government, professional scientific bodies, and commercial organizations for discussing or presenting research relating to MTBI and sport-related concussion at meetings, scientific conferences, and symposiums. He has a clinical practice in forensic neuropsychology, including expert testimony, involving individuals who have sustained mild TBIs (including athletes). He has received honorariums for serving on research panels that provide scientific peer review of programs. He is a co-investigator, collaborator, or consultant on grants relating to mild TBI funded by the federal government and other organizations. He has received research support from test publishing companies in the past, including ImPACT Applications Systems, Psychological Assessment Resources, and CNS Vital Signs. He has received research support from the Harvard Integrated Program to Protect and Improve the Health of NFLPA Members, and a grant from the National Football League. He serves as a scientific advisor for NanoDx™ (formerly BioDirection, Inc.), Sway Medical, Inc., and Highmark, Inc. ®

Funding Information:
The data were gathered as part of the Maine Concussion Management Initiative (MCMI) under the direction of the principal investigator Dr. Paul Berkner. The authors thank the Maine Athletic Trainers Association for their collaboration with the MCMI. Dr. Grant Iverson acknowledges unrestricted philanthropic support from the Mooney-Reed Charitable Foundation, National Rugby League, ImPACT Applications, Inc., and the Spaulding Research Institute. ®

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • brain concussion
  • cross-cultural comparison
  • neuropsychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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