Bio-inspired routing algorithms survey for vehicular ad hoc networks

Salim Bitam, Abdelhamid Mellouk, Sherali Zeadally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations


Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) play a key role in the design and development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that aim to improve road safety and transportation productivity. VANETs cover vehicle-To-vehicle and vehicle-To-roadside communications. One of the most important challenges of this type of network is the timely and reliable dissemination of messages among vehicular nodes that enable drivers to take appropriate decisions to improve road safety. In the past decade, many routing protocols for VANETs that can support reliability and safety requirements have been proposed. These protocols suffer from several limitations, including complexity, lack of scalability to large scale networks, routing overheads, etc. To address these limitations, various bio-inspired approaches have been proposed to route packets among vehicular nodes in an optimized manner. We survey recent proposed bio-inspired routing algorithms for the VANET environment. In particular, we identify the key features, strengths, and weaknesses of these algorithms and compare them by using various criteria. Moreover, we propose a unified formal model of the bio-inspired multimodular approaches applied to VANET routing. We highlight main future research directions in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6967690
Pages (from-to)843-867
Number of pages25
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1998-2012 IEEE.


  • Bio-inspired Algorithm
  • Reinforcement Learning
  • Routing Optimization
  • Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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